I am trying to learn how to use the Sparse Coding algorithm with the mlpack library. When I call Encode() on my instance of mlpack::sparse_coding:SparseCoding, I get the error
[WARN] There are 63 inactive atoms. They will be reinitialized randomly.
error: solve(): solution not found
Is it simply that the algorithm cannot learn a latent representation of the data. Or perhaps it is my usage? The relevant section follows
EDIT: One line was modified to fix an unrelated error, but the original error remains.
double* Application::GetSparseCodes(arma::mat* trainingExample, int atomCount)
double* latentRep = new double[atomCount];
mlpack::sparse_coding::SparseCoding<mlpack::sparse_coding::DataDependentRandomInitializer> sc(*trainingExample, Utils::ATOM_COUNT, 1.0);
arma::mat& latentRepMat = sc.Codes();
for (int i = 0; i < atomCount; i++)
latentRep[i] = latentRepMat.at(i, 0);
Some relevant parameters
const static int IMAGE_WIDTH = 20;
const static int IMAGE_HEIGHT = 20;
const static int PIXEL_COUNT = IMAGE_WIDTH * IMAGE_HEIGHT;
const static int ATOM_COUNT = 64;
const static int MAX_ITERATIONS = 100000;
This could be one of a handful of issues but given the description it's a little difficult to tell which of these it is (or if it is something else entirely). However, these three ideas should provide a good place to start:
Matrices in mlpack are column-major. That means each observation should represent a column. If you use
mlpack::data::Load() to load, e.g., a CSV file (which are generally one row per observation), it will automatically transpose the dataset.
SparseCoding will act oddly if you pass it transposed data. See also http://www.mlpack.org/doxygen.php?doc=matrices.html.
If there are 63 inactive atoms, then only one atom is actually active (given that
ATOM_COUNT is 64). This means that the algorithm has found that the best way to represent the dictionary (at a given step) uses only one atom. This could happen if the matrix you are passing consists of all zeros.
mlpack will provide verbose output, which may also be helpful for debugging. Usually this is used by using mlpack's
CLI class to parse command-line input, but you can enable verbose output with
mlpack::Log::Info.ignoreInput = false. You may obtain a lot of output that way, but it will give a better look at what is going on...
The mlpack project has its own mailing list where you may be likely to get a quicker or more comprehensive response, by the way.