I am interested in exploring surrogate based optimization. I am not yet writing opendao code, just trying to figure out to what extent OpenMDAO will support this work.
I see that it has a DOE driver to generate training data (http://openmdao.readthedocs.org/en/1.5.0/usr-guide/tutorials/doe-drivers.html), I see that it has several surrogate models that can be added to a meta model (http://openmdao.readthedocs.org/en/1.5.0/usr-guide/examples/krig_sin.html). Yet, I haven't found an example where the results of the DOE are passed as training data to the Meta-model.
In many of the examples/tutorials/forum-posts it seems that the training data is created directly on or within the meta model. So it is not clear how these things work together.
Could the developers explain how training data is passed from a DOE to a meta model? Thanks!
In openmdao 1.x, this kind of process isn't directly supported (yet) via a DOE, but it is definitely possible. There are two paths that you can take, which offer different benefits depending on your eventual goal.
I will separate the different scenarios based on a single high level classification:
1) You want to do gradient based optimization around the whole DOE/Metamodel combination. This would be the case if, for example, you wanted to use CFD to predict drag at a few key points, then use a meta-model to generate a drag polar for mission analysis. A great example of this kind of modeling can be found in this paper on simultaneous aircraft-mission design optimization..
2) You don't want to do gradient based optimization around the whole model. You might want to do gradient free optimization (like a Genetic algorithm). You might want to do gradient based optimization just around the surrogate itself, with fixed training data. Or you might not want to do optimization at all...
If you're use case falls under scenario 1 (or will eventually fall under this use case in the future), then you want to use a multi-point approach. You create one instance of your model for each training case, then you can mux the results into an array you pass into meta-model. This is necessary so that derivatives can be propagated through the full model. The multi-point approach will work well, and is very parallelizable. Depending on the structure of the model you will use for generating the training data itself, you might also consider a slightly different multi-point approach with a distributed component or a series of distributed components chained together. If your model will support it, the distributed component approach is the most efficient model structure to use in this case.
If you're use case falls into scenario 2, you can still employ the multi-point approach if you like. It will work out of the box. However, you could also consider using a regular DOE to generate the training data. In order to do this, you'll need to use a nested-problem approach, where you put the DOE training data generation in a sub-problem. This will also work, though it will take a bit of extra coding on your part to get the array of results out of the DOE because thats not currently implemented.
If you wanted to use the DOE to generate the data, then pass it downstream to a surrogate that would get optimized on, you could use a pair of problem instances. This would not necessarily require that you make nested problems at all. Instead you just build a run-script that has one problem instance that uses a DOE, when its done you collect the data into an array. Then you could manually assign that to the training inputs of a meta-model in a second problem instance. Something like the following pseudo-code:
prob1 = Problem() prob1.driver = DOE() #set up the DOE variables and model ... prob1.run() training_data = prob1.driver.results prob2 = Problem() prob2.driver = Optimizer() #set up the meta-model and optimization problem prob2['meta_model.train:x'] = training_data prob2.run()