Is there a learning resource that goes over the ins and outs of game programming in C++? I'm looking for something thorough that details the industry standards, tricks, and common approaches rather than just a "build a game in 10 steps" type material - something like the C++ Primer for games. What would a good book or tutorial be?
It depends to a degree on what kind of game you want to make. If you're planning on using a premade engine (like Unity), then the documentation on that would be the best bet.
If you're planning to build a 3D gameengine from scratch, and you want it to work on anything other than just Windows, then you'd need to learn OpenGL. There are some excellent OpenGL tutorials at http://nehe.gamedev.net/ , but for a full treatment you'd do well to read the OpenGL Red Book, the definitive OpenGL reference: http://www.opengl-redbook.com/.
If you're planning to make a 2D game engine, then check out SDL: http://www.libsdl.org/. It's cross-platform and relatively simple to use, and you can also optionally use 3D with it via OpenGL.
I'd advise that the first decision you make (if you haven't already decided) should be: do I want to roll my own game engine, or use a premade one?
The book that I used to learn and would recommend is Introduction to 3D Game Programming with DirectX 11
Pro OGRE 3D Programming (Expert's Voice in Open Source) was what we used at vizible (www.vizible.com)