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c++ - Detecting TCP Client Disconnect

问题描述:

Let's say I'm running a simple server and have accept()ed a connection from a client.

What is the best way to tell when the client has disconnected? Normally, a client is supposed to send a close command, but what if it disconnects manually or loses network connection altogether? How can the server detect or handle this?

网友答案:

select (with the read mask set) will return with the handle signalled, but when you use ioctl* to check the number of bytes pending to be read, it will be zero. This is a sign that the socket has been disconnected.

This is a great discussion on the various methods of checking that the client has disconnected: Stephen Cleary, Detection of Half-Open (Dropped) Connections.

* for Windows use ioctlsocket.

网友答案:

In TCP there is only one way to detect an orderly disconnect, and that is by getting zero as a return value from read()/recv()/recvXXX() when reading.

There is also only one reliable way to detect a broken connection: by writing to it. After enough writes to a broken connection, TCP will have done enough retries and timeouts to know that it's broken and will eventually cause write()/send()/sendXXX() to return -1 with an errno/WSAGetLastError() value of ECONNRESET, or in some cases 'connection timed out'. Note that the latter is different from 'connect timeout', which can occur in the connect phase.

You should also set a reasonable read timeout, and drop connections that fail it.

The answer here about ioctl() and FIONREAD is compete nonsense. All that does is tell you how many bytes are presently in the socket receive buffer, available to be read without blocking. If a client doesn't send you anything for five minutes that doesn't constitute a disconnect, but it does cause FIONREAD to be zero. Not the same thing: not even close.

网友答案:

To expand on this a bit more:

If you are running a server you either need to use TCP_KEEPALIVE to monitor the client connections, or do something similar yourself, or have knowledge about the data/protocol that you are running over the connection.

Basically, if the connection gets killed (i.e. not properly closed) then the server won't notice until it tries to write something to the client, which is what the keepalive achieves for you. Alternatively, if you know the protocol better, you could just disconnect on an inactivity timeout anyway.

网友答案:

If you're using overlapped (i.e. asynchronous) I/O with completion routines or completion ports, you will be notified immediately (assuming you have an outstanding read) when the client side closes the connection.

网友答案:
"""
tcp_disconnect.py
Echo network data test program in python. This easily translates to C & Java.

A server program might want to confirm that a tcp client is still connected 
before it sends a data. That is, detect if its connected without reading from socket.
This will demonstrate how to detect a TCP client disconnect without reading data.

The method to do this:
1) select on socket as poll (no wait)
2) if no recv data waiting, then client still connected
3) if recv data waiting, the read one char using PEEK flag 
4) if PEEK data len=0, then client has disconnected, otherwise its connected.
Note, the peek flag will read data without removing it from tcp queue.

To see it in action: 0) run this program on one computer 1) from another computer, 
connect via telnet port 12345, 2) type a line of data 3) wait to see it echo, 
4) type another line, 5) disconnect quickly, 6) watch the program will detect the 
disconnect and exit.

John Masinter, 17-Dec-2008
"""

import socket
import time
import select

HOST = ''       # all local interfaces
PORT = 12345    # port to listen

# listen for new TCP connections
s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
s.bind((HOST, PORT))
s.listen(1)
# accept new conneciton
conn, addr = s.accept()
print 'Connected by', addr
# loop reading/echoing, until client disconnects
try:
    conn.send("Send me data, and I will echo it back after a short delay.\n")
    while 1:
        data = conn.recv(1024)                          # recv all data queued
        if not data: break                              # client disconnected
        time.sleep(3)                                   # simulate time consuming work
        # below will detect if client disconnects during sleep
        r, w, e = select.select([conn], [], [], 0)      # more data waiting?
        print "select: r=%s w=%s e=%s" % (r,w,e)        # debug output to command line
        if r:                                           # yes, data avail to read.
            t = conn.recv(1024, socket.MSG_PEEK)        # read without remove from queue
            print "peek: len=%d, data=%s" % (len(t),t)  # debug output
            if len(t)==0:                               # length of data peeked 0?
                print "Client disconnected."            # client disconnected
                break                                   # quit program
        conn.send("-->"+data)                           # echo only if still connected
finally:
    conn.close()
网友答案:

Try looking for EPOLLHUP or EPOLLERR. How do I check client connection is still alive

Reading and looking for 0 will work in some cases, but not all.

网友答案:

TCP has "open" and a "close" procedures in the protocol. Once "opened", a connection is held until "closed". But there are lots of things that can stop the data flow abnormally. That being said, the techniques to determine if it is possible to use a link are highly dependent on the layers of software between the protocol and the application program. The ones mentioned above focus on a programmer attempting to use a socket in a non-invasive way (read or write 0 bytes) are perhaps the most common. Some layers in libraries will supply the "polling" for a programmer. For example Win32 asych (delayed) calls can Start a read that will return with no errors and 0 bytes to signal a socket that cannot be read any more (presumably a TCP FIN procedure). Other environments might use "events" as defined in their wrapping layers. There is no single answer to this question. The mechanism to detect when a socket cannot be used and should be closed depends on the wrappers supplied in the libraries. It is also worthy to note that sockets themselves can be reused by layers below an application library so it is wise to figure out how your environment deals with the Berkley Sockets interface.

网友答案:

apr library from apache project is a good reference for this problem. It use poll with a timeout value to check if the other side connection is broken or not.

网友答案:

I toyed with a few solutions but this one seems to work best for detecting host and/or client disconnection in Windows. It is for non-blocking sockets, and derived from IBM's example.

char buf;
int length=recv(socket, &buf, 0, 0);
int nError=WSAGetLastError();
if(nError!=WSAEWOULDBLOCK&&nError!=0){
    return 0;
}   
if (nError==0){
    if (length==0) return 0;
}
网友答案:

We run in similar issue when detecting the cable removal on the PC was the issue. After googling we hit on the SuperCom for TCP library that offered this feature and a very reliable data communication library that could also handle reporting events when a connection was closed.

网友答案:

It's really easy to do: reliable and not messy:

        Try
            Clients.Client.Send(BufferByte)
        Catch verror As Exception
            BufferString = verror.ToString
        End Try
        If BufferString <> "" Then
            EventLog.Text &= "User disconnected: " + vbNewLine
            Clients.Close()
        End If
网友答案:

This question is founded on various misconceptions about the network stack.

First of all there is no concept of a 'connection' Tcp or otherwise and the sooner you make that distinction the sooner you will realize it's no different than udp or any other protocol.

When your receive times out you either have data to send or you don't.

If you don't wanna transmit than, optionally increase timeout and recieve again.

If the client unplugged the computer or otherwise disconnected then how or why does that matter?

Is that going to break your 'connection'? Maybe but maybe not, who knows how your machine is setup or the LSP of such.

The normal way to do this is just like with any other protocols and I remind you that the socket is already 'connected' in cases where a recive occurs.

When you try to send that client something you will know if the client is 'connected' or more correctly acknowledged your data under Tcp. (Under udp also depending on the network via icmp)

Why you down voted that answer is because of your own misunderstanding.

In short, if you have data to send send it and determine what action is required after sending succeeded or failed.

If your receive operation times out the same applies and optionally you can use a 0 size send to confirm the other party is still receiving your data.

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