This is the arrowhead pointed about 45 degrees clockwise from north. You see it in the status bar when location services like Google Maps are running. It's also used to center your current position in Google Maps.
Wondering if this is represented in a font somewhere? I would expect it to be, since so many other symbols are in other fonts, e.g. OSX Symbol font, but that one doesn't seem to have iOS specific glyphs.
Unfortunately, the iOS system icons are not available publicly (except for a few system
UIBarButtonItem styles). iOS does have a Symbol font, but it has very few glyphs.