【写给朱大虫的教程】【Ruby on Rails】【006】遵循Rails理念的快速实现

来源:转载

前言:

上两节我们讲了用户的添加、登录……,这一次我们遵循Rails的理念,快速实现用户的注册、登录……

理念:

1、少就是多

2、不要重复制造轮子

开始:

1、新建rails工程

$ rails new r2 -d=mysql

配置Gemfile文件,添加一句:

gem 'devise' #devise是一个gem包

配置config/database.yml文件,修改适合自己的数据库名、用户名和密码。

$ bundle install
$ rake db:create #创建数据库

解释:

  1. devise是一个开源的工程,主要用于用户的注册、登录、找回密码、session等等。所谓“不要重复制造轮子”,既然有好的工程,我们就拿来用,直接在Gemfile中作为gem包引入,方便之极。Do you want to know more? https://github.com/plataformatec/devise

2、配置devise

(1)应用devise:

$ rails g devise:install

输出如下:

===============================================================================Some setup you must do manually if you haven't yet: 1. Setup default url options for your specific environment. Here is an example of development environment: config.action_mailer.default_url_options = { :host => 'localhost:3000' } This is a required Rails configuration. In production it must be the actual host of your application 2. Ensure you have defined root_url to *something* in your config/routes.rb. For example: root :to => "home#index" 3. Ensure you have flash messages in app/views/layouts/application.html.erb. For example: <p class="notice"><%= notice %></p> <p class="alert"><%= alert %></p>===============================================================================

以上提示,我们后面再做理会!

(2)使用devise创建user model:

$ rails g devise User

发生了什么?

  1. 在app/models文件夹下产生了一个user.rb,也就是创建了一个user model
  2. 在db/migrate文件夹下产生了一个migrate文件
  3. 在config/routes.rb文件中添加了一行 devise_for :users

(3)配置user

编辑app/models/user.rb文件

class User < ActiveRecord::Base # Include default devise modules. Others available are: # :token_authenticatable, :encryptable, :confirmable, :lockable, :timeoutable and :omniauthable devise :database_authenticatable, :registerable, :recoverable, :rememberable, :trackable, :validatable, #末尾添加,号 :confirmable, :lockable #添加这一行 # Setup accessible (or protected) attributes for your model attr_accessible :email, :password, :password_confirmation, :remember_meend

编辑db/migrate/20110726xxxxxx_devise_create_users.rb文件

class DeviseCreateUsers < ActiveRecord::Migration def self.up create_table(:users) do |t| t.database_authenticatable :null => false t.recoverable t.rememberable t.trackable #添加以下两行 t.confirmable t.lockable :lock_strategy => :failed_attempts, :unlock_strategy => :both # t.encryptable # t.confirmable # t.lockable :lock_strategy => :failed_attempts, :unlock_strategy => :both # t.token_authenticatable t.timestamps end add_index :users, :email, :unique => true add_index :users, :reset_password_token, :unique => true #添加以下两行 add_index :users, :confirmation_token, :unique => true add_index :users, :unlock_token, :unique => true # add_index :users, :confirmation_token, :unique => true # add_index :users, :unlock_token, :unique => true # add_index :users, :authentication_token, :unique => true end def self.down drop_table :users endend

生成数据表:

$ rake db:migrate

(3)配置邮件服务器

编辑config/initializers/devise.rb

# Use this hook to configure devise mailer, warden hooks and so forth. The first# four configuration values can also be set straight in your models.Devise.setup do |config| # ==> Mailer Configuration # Configure the e-mail address which will be shown in DeviseMailer. config.mailer_sender = "xxx@126.com" #换成你的邮箱,最好不要是gmail # Configure the class responsible to send e-mails. # config.mailer = "Devise::Mailer" # ==> ORM configuration # Load and configure the ORM. Supports :active_record (default) and # :mongoid (bson_ext recommended) by default. Other ORMs may be # available as additional gems. require 'devise/orm/active_record' # ==> Configuration for any authentication mechanism # Configure which keys are used when authenticating a user. The default is # just :email. You can configure it to use [:username, :subdomain], so for # authenticating a user, both parameters are required. Remember that those # parameters are used only when authenticating and not when retrieving from # session. If you need permissions, you should implement that in a before filter. # You can also supply a hash where the value is a boolean determining whether # or not authentication should be aborted when the value is not present. # config.authentication_keys = [ :email ] # Configure parameters from the request object used for authentication. Each entry # given should be a request method and it will automatically be passed to the # find_for_authentication method and considered in your model lookup. For instance, # if you set :request_keys to [:subdomain], :subdomain will be used on authentication. # The same considerations mentioned for authentication_keys also apply to request_keys. # config.request_keys = [] # Configure which authentication keys should be case-insensitive. # These keys will be downcased upon creating or modifying a user and when used # to authenticate or find a user. Default is :email. config.case_insensitive_keys = [ :email ] # Configure which authentication keys should have whitespace stripped. # These keys will have whitespace before and after removed upon creating or # modifying a user and when used to authenticate or find a user. Default is :email. config.strip_whitespace_keys = [ :email ] # Tell if authentication through request.params is enabled. True by default. # config.params_authenticatable = true # Tell if authentication through HTTP Basic Auth is enabled. False by default. # config.http_authenticatable = false # If http headers should be returned for AJAX requests. True by default. # config.http_authenticatable_on_xhr = true # The realm used in Http Basic Authentication. "Application" by default. # config.http_authentication_realm = "Application" # It will change confirmation, password recovery and other workflows # to behave the same regardless if the e-mail provided was right or wrong. # Does not affect registerable. # config.paranoid = true # ==> Configuration for :database_authenticatable # For bcrypt, this is the cost for hashing the password and defaults to 10. If # using other encryptors, it sets how many times you want the password re-encrypted. config.stretches = 10 # Setup a pepper to generate the encrypted password. # config.pepper = "025e837f7ae23e7f4e3b0a3dd048577e3b82c0f803fc4a8bac896303ab40545ab6e47600962cd8075c3122af0c98dba62bd6399604d622579797c282b0b1b2a1" # ==> Configuration for :confirmable # The time you want to give your user to confirm his account. During this time # he will be able to access your application without confirming. Default is 0.days # When confirm_within is zero, the user won't be able to sign in without confirming. # You can use this to let your user access some features of your application # without confirming the account, but blocking it after a certain period # (ie 2 days). # config.confirm_within = 2.days # Defines which key will be used when confirming an account # config.confirmation_keys = [ :email ] # ==> Configuration for :rememberable # The time the user will be remembered without asking for credentials again. # config.remember_for = 2.weeks # If true, a valid remember token can be re-used between multiple browsers. # config.remember_across_browsers = true # If true, extends the user's remember period when remembered via cookie. # config.extend_remember_period = false # If true, uses the password salt as remember token. This should be turned # to false if you are not using database authenticatable. config.use_salt_as_remember_token = true # Options to be passed to the created cookie. For instance, you can set # :secure => true in order to force SSL only cookies. # config.cookie_options = {} # ==> Configuration for :validatable # Range for password length. Default is 6..128. # config.password_length = 6..128 # Regex to use to validate the email address # config.email_regexp = //A([/w/.%/+/-]+)@([/w/-]+/.)+([/w]{2,})/z/i # ==> Configuration for :timeoutable # The time you want to timeout the user session without activity. After this # time the user will be asked for credentials again. Default is 30 minutes. # config.timeout_in = 30.minutes # ==> Configuration for :lockable # Defines which strategy will be used to lock an account. # :failed_attempts = Locks an account after a number of failed attempts to sign in. # :none = No lock strategy. You should handle locking by yourself. # config.lock_strategy = :failed_attempts # Defines which key will be used when locking and unlocking an account # config.unlock_keys = [ :email ] # Defines which strategy will be used to unlock an account. # :email = Sends an unlock link to the user email # :time = Re-enables login after a certain amount of time (see :unlock_in below) # :both = Enables both strategies # :none = No unlock strategy. You should handle unlocking by yourself. # config.unlock_strategy = :both # Number of authentication tries before locking an account if lock_strategy # is failed attempts. # config.maximum_attempts = 20 # Time interval to unlock the account if :time is enabled as unlock_strategy. # config.unlock_in = 1.hour # ==> Configuration for :recoverable # # Defines which key will be used when recovering the password for an account # config.reset_password_keys = [ :email ] # Time interval you can reset your password with a reset password key. # Don't put a too small interval or your users won't have the time to # change their passwords. config.reset_password_within = 2.hours # ==> Configuration for :encryptable # Allow you to use another encryption algorithm besides bcrypt (default). You can use # :sha1, :sha512 or encryptors from others authentication tools as :clearance_sha1, # :authlogic_sha512 (then you should set stretches above to 20 for default behavior) # and :restful_authentication_sha1 (then you should set stretches to 10, and copy # REST_AUTH_SITE_KEY to pepper) # config.encryptor = :sha512 # ==> Configuration for :token_authenticatable # Defines name of the authentication token params key # config.token_authentication_key = :auth_token # If true, authentication through token does not store user in session and needs # to be supplied on each request. Useful if you are using the token as API token. # config.stateless_token = false # ==> Scopes configuration # Turn scoped views on. Before rendering "sessions/new", it will first check for # "users/sessions/new". It's turned off by default because it's slower if you # are using only default views. # config.scoped_views = false # Configure the default scope given to Warden. By default it's the first # devise role declared in your routes (usually :user). # config.default_scope = :user # Configure sign_out behavior. # Sign_out action can be scoped (i.e. /users/sign_out affects only :user scope). # The default is true, which means any logout action will sign out all active scopes. # config.sign_out_all_scopes = true # ==> Navigation configuration # Lists the formats that should be treated as navigational. Formats like # :html, should redirect to the sign in page when the user does not have # access, but formats like :xml or :json, should return 401. # # If you have any extra navigational formats, like :iphone or :mobile, you # should add them to the navigational formats lists. # # The :"*/*" and "*/*" formats below is required to match Internet # Explorer requests. # config.navigational_formats = [:"*/*", "*/*", :html] # The default HTTP method used to sign out a resource. Default is :delete. config.sign_out_via = :delete # ==> OmniAuth # Add a new OmniAuth provider. Check the wiki for more information on setting # up on your models and hooks. # config.omniauth :github, 'APP_ID', 'APP_SECRET', :scope => 'user,public_repo' # ==> Warden configuration # If you want to use other strategies, that are not supported by Devise, or # change the failure app, you can configure them inside the config.warden block. # # config.warden do |manager| # manager.failure_app = AnotherApp # manager.intercept_401 = false # manager.default_strategies(:scope => :user).unshift :some_external_strategy # endend

编辑config/environments/development.rb

R2::Application.configure do # Settings specified here will take precedence over those in config/application.rb # In the development environment your application's code is reloaded on # every request. This slows down response time but is perfect for development # since you don't have to restart the webserver when you make code changes. config.cache_classes = false # Log error messages when you accidentally call methods on nil. config.whiny_nils = true # Show full error reports and disable caching config.consider_all_requests_local = true config.action_view.debug_rjs = true config.action_controller.perform_caching = false # Don't care if the mailer can't send config.action_mailer.raise_delivery_errors = true #此处改为true #添加以下内容 config.action_mailer.default_url_options = { :host => "localhost:3000" } #刚才devise的提示中提到这一句 config.action_mailer.delivery_method = :smtp config.action_mailer.smtp_settings = { :address => "smtp.126.com", :port => 25, :domain => "126.com", :authentication => :login, :user_name => "xxx@126.com", #你的邮箱 :password => "xxxxxx" #你的密码 } # Print deprecation notices to the Rails logger config.active_support.deprecation = :log # Only use best-standards-support built into browsers config.action_dispatch.best_standards_support = :builtinend

(4)其它配置

随便新建一个home controller

$ rails g controller home index

删除public目录下的index.html文件

修改config/routes.rb文件,添加一句

root :to => "home#index"

编辑app/controllers/home_controller.rb文件

class HomeController < ApplicationController before_filter :authenticate_user! #添加这一句 def index endend

编辑app/views/layouts/application.html.erb文件

<!DOCTYPE html><html><head> <title>R2</title> <%= stylesheet_link_tag :all %> <%= javascript_include_tag :defaults %> <%= csrf_meta_tag %></head><body>#添加以下两句<p class="notice"><%= notice %></p><p class="alert"><%= alert %></p><%= yield %></body></html>

3、运行程序

启动工程:

$ rails s

浏览器输入:http://localhost:3000

结果转到了http://localhost:3000/users/sign_in,要求你登录

我没有账户登录怎么办?点击sign_up注册账户

填写email、密码,点击“sign up ”,不出意外的话去注册邮箱收取确认邮件吧!

点一下链接:

一个注册、登录程序就完成了!!!

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