Let’s Build A Simple Interpreter. Part 6.

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Today is the day :) “Why?” you might ask. The reason is that today we’re wrapping up our discussion of arithmetic expressions (well, almost) by adding parenthesized expressions to our grammar and implementing an interpreter that will be able to evaluate parenthesized expressions with arbitrarily deep nesting, like the expression 7 + 3 * (10 / (12 / (3 + 1) -1)).

Let’s get started, shallwe?

First, let’s modify the grammar to support expressions inside parentheses. As you remember fromPart 5, the factor rule is used for basic units in expressions. In that article, the only basic unit we had was an integer. Today we’re adding another basic unit - a parenthesized expression. Let’s doit.

Here is our updatedgrammar:

The expr and the term productions are exactly the same as inPart 5 and the only change is in the factor production where the terminal LPAREN represents a left parenthesis ‘(‘, the terminal RPAREN represents a right parenthesis ‘)’, and the non-terminal expr between the parentheses refers to the expr rule.

Here is the updated syntax diagram for the factor , which now includesalternatives:

Because the grammar rules for the expr and the term haven’t changed, their syntax diagrams look the same as inPart 5:

Here is an interesting feature of our new grammar - it is recursive. If you try to derive the expression 2 * (7 + 3), you will start with the expr start symbol and eventually you will get to a point where you will recursively use the expr rule again to derive the (7 + 3) portion of the original arithmeticexpression.

Let’s decompose the expression 2 * (7 + 3) according to the grammar and see how itlooks:

A little aside: if you need a refresher on recursion, take a look at Daniel P. Friedman and Matthias Felleisen’s The Little Schemer book - it’s reallygood.

Okay, let’s get moving and translate our new updated grammar tocode.

The following are the main changes to the code from the previousarticle:

The Lexer has been modified to return two more tokens: LPAREN for a left parenthesis and RPAREN for a rightparenthesis. The Interpreter ‘s factor method has been slightly updated to parse parenthesized expressions in addition tointegers.

Here is the complete code of a calculator that can evaluate arithmetic expressions containing integers; any number of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division operators; and parenthesized expressions with arbitrarily deepnesting:

# Token types## EOF (end-of-file) token is used to indicate that# there is no more input left for lexical analysisINTEGER, PLUS, MINUS, MUL, DIV, LPAREN, RPAREN, EOF = ('INTEGER', 'PLUS', 'MINUS', 'MUL', 'DIV', '(', ')', 'EOF')class Token(object):def __init__(self, type, value):self.type = typeself.value = valuedef __str__(self):"""String representation of the class instance.Examples:Token(INTEGER, 3)Token(PLUS, '+')Token(MUL, '*')"""return 'Token({type}, {value})'.format(type=self.type,value=repr(self.value))def __repr__(self):return self.__str__()class Lexer(object):def __init__(self, text):# client string input, e.g. "4 + 2 * 3 - 6 / 2"self.text = text# self.pos is an index into self.textself.pos = 0self.current_char = self.text[self.pos]def error(self):raise Exception('Invalid character')def advance(self):"""Advance the `pos` pointer and set the `current_char` variable."""self.pos += 1if self.pos > len(self.text) - 1:self.current_char = None # Indicates end of inputelse:self.current_char = self.text[self.pos]def skip_whitespace(self):while self.current_char is not None and self.current_char.isspace():self.advance()def integer(self):"""Return a (multidigit) integer consumed from the input."""result = ''while self.current_char is not None and self.current_char.isdigit():result += self.current_charself.advance()return int(result)def get_next_token(self):"""Lexical analyzer (also known as scanner or tokenizer)This method is responsible for breaking a sentenceapart into tokens. One token at a time."""while self.current_char is not None:if self.current_char.isspace():self.skip_whitespace()continueif self.current_char.isdigit():return Token(INTEGER, self.integer())if self.current_char == '+':self.advance()return Token(PLUS, '+')if self.current_char == '-':self.advance()return Token(MINUS, '-')if self.current_char == '*':self.advance()return Token(MUL, '*')if self.current_char == '/':self.advance()return Token(DIV, '/')if self.current_char == '(':self.advance()return Token(LPAREN, '(')if self.current_char == ')':self.advance()return Token(RPAREN, ')')self.error()return Token(EOF, None)class Interpreter(object):def __init__(self, lexer):self.lexer = lexer# set current token to the first token taken from the inputself.current_token = self.lexer.get_next_token()def error(self):raise Exception('Invalid syntax')def eat(self, token_type):# compare the current token type with the passed token# type and if they match then "eat" the current token# and assign the next token to the self.current_token,# otherwise raise an exception.if self.current_token.type == token_type:self.current_token = self.lexer.get_next_token()else:self.error()def factor(self):"""factor : INTEGER | LPAREN expr RPAREN"""token = self.current_tokenif token.type == INTEGER:self.eat(INTEGER)return token.valueelif token.type == LPAREN:self.eat(LPAREN)result = self.expr()self.eat(RPAREN)return resultdef term(self):"""term : factor ((MUL | DIV) factor)*"""result = self.factor()while self.current_token.type in (MUL, DIV):token = self.current_tokenif token.type == MUL:self.eat(MUL)result = result * self.factor()elif token.type == DIV:self.eat(DIV)result = result / self.factor()return resultdef expr(self):"""Arithmetic expression parser / interpreter.calc> 7 + 3 * (10 / (12 / (3 + 1) - 1))22expr : term ((PLUS | MINUS) term)*term : factor ((MUL | DIV) factor)*factor : INTEGER | LPAREN expr RPAREN"""result = self.term()while self.current_token.type in (PLUS, MINUS):token = self.current_tokenif token.type == PLUS:self.eat(PLUS)result = result + self.term()elif token.type == MINUS:self.eat(MINUS)result = result - self.term()return resultdef main():while True:try:# To run under Python3 replace 'raw_input' call# with 'input'text = raw_input('calc> ')except EOFError:breakif not text:continuelexer = Lexer(text)interpreter = Interpreter(lexer)result = interpreter.expr()print(result)if __name__ == '__main__':main()

Save the above code into the calc6.py file, try it out and see for yourself that your new interpreter properly evaluates arithmetic expressions that have different operators andparentheses.

Here is a samplesession:

$ python calc6.pycalc> 33calc> 2 + 7 * 430calc> 7 - 8 / 45calc> 14 + 2 * 3 - 6 / 217calc> 7 + 3 * (10 / (12 / (3 + 1) - 1))22calc> 7 + 3 * (10 / (12 / (3 + 1) - 1)) / (2 + 3) - 5 - 3 + (8)10calc> 7 + (((3 + 2)))12

And here is a new exercise for you fortoday:

Write your own version of the interpreter of arithmetic expressions as described in this article. Remember: repetition is the mother of alllearning.

Hey, you read all the way to the end! Congratulations, you’ve just learned how to create (and if you’ve done the exercise - you’ve actually written) a basic recursive-descent parser / interpreter that can evaluate pretty complex arithmeticexpressions.

In the next article I will talk in a lot more detail about recursive-descent parsers . I will also introduce an important and widely used data structure in interpreter and compiler construction that we’ll use throughout theseries.

Stay tuned and see you soon. Until then, keep working on your interpreter and most importantly: have fun and enjoy theprocess!

Here is a list of books I recommend that will help you in your study of interpreters andcompilers:

Language Implementation Patterns: Create Your Own Domain-Specific and General Programming Languages (Pragmatic Programmers)

Writing Compilers and Interpreters: A Software Engineering Approach

Modern Compiler Implementation in Java

Modern Compiler Design

Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools (2nd Edition)

By the way, I’m writing a book “Let’s Build A Web Server: First Steps” that explains how to write a basic web server from scratch. You can get a feel for the bookhere,here, andhere. Subscribe to the mailing list to get the latest updates about the book and the releasedate.


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