Linux 下 MySQL 5.5.8 源码编译安装记录

来源:转载

系统:Ubuntu 10.10

mysql源码文件:mysql-5.5.8.tar.gz

安装所需工具:cmake,   GNU make,   gcc,  Perl,  libncurses5-dev,  bison(可选),  chkconfig

注:

1.官方2010-11-18的源码有几处bug,在编译之前参照官方的说明,进行了手动修改。

 

官方说明链接:http://lists.mysql.com/commits/126782

2.官方5.5版本参考手册:http://dev.mysql.com/doc/

汗了一下,3392页的参考手册!

=>工具安装:

1. cmake

    ----没有自己编译安装cmake

    ----shell:~$ sudo apt-get install cmake

    ----版本:2.8.2

2. GNU make

    ----Ubuntu自带

    ----版本:3.81

3.GCC

    ----Ubuntu自带

    ----版本:4.4.5(官方文档:必须3.2以上)

4.Perl

    ----Ubuntu自带

    ----版本:5.10.1

5.libncurses5-dev (ncurses-devel)

    ----若差了这个包,在cmake的时候会报错。

    ----Debian/Ubuntu上的包名是libncurses5-dev,RedHat和其他版本对应的是ncurses-devel

    ----shell:~$ sudo apt-get install libncurses5-dev

    ----报错信息

------------------www.linuxidc.com---------------

              -- MySQL 5.5.8

              -- Could NOT find Curses (missing:  CURSES_LIBRARY CURSES_INCLUDE_PATH)

              CMake Error at cmake/readline.cmake:82 (MESSAGE):                   Curses library not found.  Please install appropriate package,

 

                   remove CMakeCache.txt and rerun cmake.On Debian/Ubuntu , package name is libncurses5-dev ,

                   on RedHat and derivates it is ncurses-devel.
              Call Stack (most recent call first):
              cmake/readline.cmake:126 (FIND_CURSES)
              cmake/readline.cmake:216 (MYSQL_USE_BUNDLED_LIBEDIT)
              CMakeLists.txt:256 (MYSQL_CHECK_READLINE)


               -- Configuring incomplete, errors occurred!

---------------------------------

6. bison

    ----shell:~$ sudo apt-get install bison

    ----可选。没有这个工具,在make的时候报出警告。

    ----警告记录:

---------------------------------

 

          Warning: Bison executables not found in PATH

---------------------------------

7.chkconfig

    ----后面配置mysql服务自启动的时候需要。

    ----shell:~$ sudo apt-get install chkconfig

=>mysql安装:

1.解压源代码文件

    ----shell定位到源代码文件所在目录

    ----解压

         shell:~$ tar zxvf mysql-5.5.8.tar.gz
2.cmake操作

    ----shell定位到解压出的源代码文件夹目录(文件夹:mysql-5.5.8)
    ----cmake执行:

---------------------------------

         shell:~$ cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql

                                     -DMYSQL_DATADIR=/home/system_username/Programming/mysql/mysqldata                

                                     -DSYSCONFDIR=/etc                                               

                                     -DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

                                     -DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

                                     -DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 

                                     -DWITH_FEDERATED_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

                                     -DWITH_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

                                     -DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/tmp/mysqld.sock

                                     -DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306

                                     -DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1

                                     -DEXTRA_CHARSETS=all

                                     -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8

                                     -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8-general_ci

                                     -DMYSQL_USER=mysql

        注:没有换行。官方文档上,cmake 命令后面加个点不懂什么意思。在这里加上命令执行不了

---------------------------------

        源代码配置选项说明:

                     //mysql安装的主目录,5.5.8版本默认为/usr/local/mysql,所以可以不添加

                     -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql

 

                     //mysql数据保存的路径,自定义

                     -DMYSQL_DATADIR=/home/system_username/mysql/mysqldata  

 

                     //mysql配置文件地址------The default my.cnf option file directory

                     -DSYSCONFDIR=/etc

 

                     //Compile storage engine xxx statically into server

                     /*Storage engines are built as plugins. You can build a plugin as a static module (compiled into the server)    

                      *or a dynamic module  (built as a dynamic library that must be installed into the server using the INSTALL  

                      *PLUGIN statement or the --plugin-load option before it can be used). Some plugins might not support static 

                      *or dynamic building.

                      */

                     -DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

                     -DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

                     -DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

                     -DWITH_FEDERATED_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

                     -DWITH_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

 

                     //Unix socket file

                     /*

                      *The Unix socket file path on which the server listens for socket connections. This must be an absolute path 

                      *name. The default is /tmp/mysql.sock

                      */

                     -DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/tmp/mysqld.sock

 

                     //数据库服务器TCP/IP连接的监听端口,默认为3306

                     -DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306

 

                     //Whether to enable LOCAL capability in the client library for LOAD DATA INFILE

                    //默认为关闭,这里开启

                     -DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1

 

                     //数据库编码设置

                     -DEXTRA_CHARSETS=all

                     -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8

                     -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8-general_ci

3.编译和安装

    ----shell定位到源代码文件夹目录

    ----执行:(编译用了大概20分钟)

          shell:~$ make

          shell:~$ make install

 

4.后续配置

    ----进入mysql安装目录下的脚本目录
         shell:~$ cd /usr/local/mysql/scripts
    ----利用mysql_install_db脚本生成新的MySQL 授权表
        ./mysql_install_db  --basedir=/usr/local/mysql  --datadir=/home/system_username/Programming/mysql/mysqldata  

         --user=mysql 

    ----进入mysql安装目录下的支持文件目录
         shell:~$ cd /usr/local/mysql/support-files
    ----复制mysql配置文件
         shell:~$ sudo cp my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf

 

    ----复制服务文件并修改
         shell:~$ sudo cp mysql.server mysqld
    ----修改mysqld
         basedir=/usr/local/mysql
         datadir=/home/mysql
         mv mysqld /etc/init.d/mysqld

    ----启动服务
          shell:~$ service mysqld start

    ----关闭服务

          shell:~$ service mysqld stop

---------------------------------

service命令:

1.  用于管理Linux系统中服务的命令

2.  作用是去/etc/init.d目录下寻找相应的服务,进行开启和关闭等操作

3.  上述操作后,mysqld服务文件对应mysql.server文件

---------------------------------

    ----添加服务到自启动项
        shell:~$ sudo chkconfig --level 3 mysqld on

 

    ----设置软连接使mysql,  mysqldump,  mysqladmin这三个命令能在shell中直接运行
         shell:~$ sudo ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql /usr/bin
         shell:~$ sudo ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqldump /usr/bin
         shell:~$ sudo ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin /usr/bin

---------------------------------

=>mysql数据库中文乱码解决 :

1. 乱码分析

   ----从终端shell进入mysql

                   shell:~$ mysql

                   ............

                   ............

                   mysql> show variables like '%character%'

   ----得到以下数据库编码信息表:

                           +----------------------------------- +-------------------------------------------+
                            | Variable_name                    | Value                                               |
                           +------------------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
                            | character_set_client           | utf8                                                    |
                            | character_set_connection | utf8                                                    |
                            | character_set_database    | latin1                                                 |
                            | character_set_filesystem   | binary                                                |
                            | character_set_results         | utf8                                                     |
                            | character_set_server          | latin1                                                 |
                            | character_set_system         | utf8                                                    |
                            | character_sets_dir               | /usr/local/mysql/share/charsets/  |
                           +------------------------------------ +-------------------------------------------+

                  可以看出character_set_database  ,character_set_server 的编码还是默认的latin1。

          不知道为什么,之前DEFAULT_CHARSET设置成为utf8的,好像没起作用。查看官方文档

          发现,character_set_database不支持配置文件(/etc/my.cnf)变量设置,

           但是character_set_server 支持配置文件变量设置。

 

2. 解决办法

    ----打开配置文件

               shell:~$ sudo gedit /etc/my.cnf

          然后在[mysqld]配置选项下添加

               character-set-server = utf8

     ----然后进入mysql

      执行:

               mysql> show variables like '%character%'

      结果:character_set_database  ,character_set_server两项都变为utf8了

     ----测试:

              往数据库表中插入中文字段,中文就正常显示了。

 

注:1.用5.1版本的时候如下方法是可以解决中文编码问题的

            ----在配置文件[mysqld]和[client]节下分别添加: default-character-set = utf8

         2.不知到是不是手动编译的原因,在5.5.8中配置文件中用上述方法会造成数据库服务无法启动。

            ----错误日志如下:( datadir/username.err为错误日志文件)

                  ----------------------------------------------------

                  mysqld_safe mysqld from pid file /home/cyberwym/Programming/mysql/mysqldata/cyberwym.pid ended

                  ...........

                  ...........

                  [ERROR] /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld: unknown variable 'default-character-set=utf8'

                  [ERROR] Aborting

                  ----------------------------------------------------

             ----这样会造成pid文件(datadir/username.pid)无法更新

             ----在配置文件[mysqld]和[client]节下分别去掉: default-character-set = utf8 后,数据库服务就启动正常了

 


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