MySQL备份与恢复之冷备(1)

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        用一句话概括冷备,就是把数据库服务,比如MySQL,Oracle停下来,然后使用拷贝、打包或者压缩命令对数据目录进行备份。如果数据出现异常,则可以通过备份数据恢复。冷备一般需要定制计划,比如什么时候做备份,每次对哪些数据进行备份等等。但是由于这样的备份占用过多的空间,对大数据量的环境下不一定适合,故生产环境很少使用。

冷备示意图

 

冷备实验

第一步,创建测试数据库,插入测试数据

mysql> use larrydb;Database changedmysql> show tables;+-------------------+| Tables_in_larrydb |+-------------------+| access |+-------------------+1 row in set (0.00 sec)mysql> drop table access;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)mysql> clearmysql> show tables;Empty set (0.00 sec)mysql> mysql> create table class( -> cid int, -> cname varchar(30));Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)mysql> show create table class /G;*************************** 1. row *************************** Table: classCreate Table: CREATE TABLE `class` ( `cid` int(11) DEFAULT NULL, `cname` varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin11 row in set (0.00 sec)ERROR: No query specifiedmysql> create table stu( -> sid int, -> sname varchar(30), -> cid int) engine=myisam;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)mysql> show create table stu /G;*************************** 1. row *************************** Table: stuCreate Table: CREATE TABLE `stu` ( `sid` int(11) DEFAULT NULL, `sname` varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL, `cid` int(11) DEFAULT NULL) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=utf81 row in set (0.00 sec)ERROR: No query specifiedmysql> insert into class values(1,'linux'),(2,'oracle');Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)Records: 2 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0mysql> desc class;+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+| cid | int(11) | YES | | NULL | || cname | varchar(30) | YES | | NULL | |+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+2 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> desc stu;+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+| sid | int(11) | YES | | NULL | || sname | varchar(30) | YES | | NULL | || cid | int(11) | YES | | NULL | |+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+3 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> insert into stu values(1,'larry01',1),(2,'larry02',2);Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)Records: 2 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0mysql> select * from stu;+------+---------+------+| sid | sname | cid |+------+---------+------+| 1 | larry01 | 1 || 2 | larry02 | 2 |+------+---------+------+ 

第二步,停掉MySQL

[[email protected] ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld stopShutting down MySQL... SUCCESS! 

 
第三步,创建备份目录,并修改拥有者和所属组

[[email protected] ~]# mkdir /databackup[[email protected] ~]# chown mysql.mysql /databackup/ -R[[email protected] ~]# ll /databackup/ -ddrwxr-xr-x. 2 mysql mysql 4096 Sep 10 17:46 /databackup/[[email protected] ~]# cd /databackup/ 

第四步,冷备(使用tar命令)

[[email protected] databackup]# tar -cvPzf mysql01.tar.gz 

 
第五步,测试冷备的数据是否正常,我们删除掉data下的所有数据

[[email protected] databackup]# rm -rf /usr/local/mysql/data/*

 
第六步,删除所有数据后数据库不能启动

[[email protected] databackup]# /etc/init.d/mysqld startStarting MySQL.. ERROR! The server quit without updating PID file (/usr/local/mysql/data/serv01.host.com.pid).

 
第七步,恢复数据(使用tar命令)

[[email protected] databackup]# tar -xvPf mysql01.tar.gz 

 
第八步,启动MySQL,然后登录MySQL,查看数据是否丢失,如果数据正常代表冷备成功

[[email protected] databackup]# /etc/init.d/mysqld startStarting MySQL.. SUCCESS! [[email protected] ~]# mysqlWelcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or /g.Your MySQL connection id is 1Server version: 5.5.29-log Source distributionCopyright (c) 2000, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or itsaffiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectiveowners.Type 'help;' or '/h' for help. Type '/c' to clear the current input statement.mysql> use larrydb;Database changedmysql> select * from class;+------+--------+| cid | cname |+------+--------+| 1 | linux || 2 | oracle |+------+--------+2 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> select * from stu;+------+---------+------+| sid | sname | cid |+------+---------+------+| 1 | larry01 | 1 || 2 | larry02 | 2 |+------+---------+------+2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

以上就是实现MySQL冷备的全部过程,大家对冷备有没有了大概的了解,希望这篇文章可以对大家的学习有所帮助。



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