MySQL备份与恢复之真实环境使用冷备(2)

来源:转载


       在上一篇文章(MySQL备份与恢复之冷备)中,我们提到了冷备。但是有个问题,我们存储的数据文件是保存在当前本地磁盘的,如果这个磁盘挂掉,那我们存储的数据不就丢失了,这样备份数据不就功亏一篑,劳而无功。所以真实环境中我们多准备几块磁盘,然后再在这些磁盘上搭建LVM,把MySQL的数据目录挂载到LVM上,这样数据就不是存储在当前磁盘上,就可以保证数据的安全性。

示意图

 

真实环境使用冷备模拟

第一步,需要提前规划好磁盘,这里做模拟,添加两磁盘
 
第二步,对磁盘进行分区

[[email protected] ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb[[email protected] ~]# fdisk /dev/sdc[[email protected] ~]# ll /dev/sd[bc]1brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 17 Sep 10 18:06 /dev/sdb1brw-rw----. 1 root disk 8, 33 Sep 10 18:09 /dev/sdc1 


第三步,yum安装lvm2

[roo[email protected] ~]# yum install lvm2 -y

 
第四步,创建物理卷

[[email protected] ~]# pvcreate /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 Physical volume "/dev/sdb1" successfully created Physical volume "/dev/sdc1" successfully created

 
第五步,创建卷组

[[email protected] ~]# vgcreate data /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 Volume group "data" successfully created

 
第六步,创建逻辑卷

[[email protected] ~]# lvcreate -L 2G -n mydata data Logical volume "mydata" created

 
第七步,格式化磁盘

[[email protected] ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/data/mydata mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)Filesystem label=OS type: LinuxBlock size=4096 (log=2)Fragment size=4096 (log=2)Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks131072 inodes, 524288 blocks26214 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super userFirst data block=0Maximum filesystem blocks=53687091216 block groups32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group8192 inodes per groupSuperblock backups stored on blocks: 32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912Writing inode tables: done Creating journal (16384 blocks): doneWriting superblocks and filesystem accounting information: doneThis filesystem will be automatically checked every 28 mounts or180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

第八步,冷备

[[email protected] ~]# ls /usr/local/mysql/data/crm ib_logfile0 mysql-bin.000001 mysql-bin.000005 mysql-bin.000009 mysql-bin.000013 mysql-bin.index testgame ib_logfile1 mysql-bin.000002 mysql-bin.000006 mysql-bin.000010 mysql-bin.000014 performance_schemahello larrydb mysql-bin.000003 mysql-bin.000007 mysql-bin.000011 mysql-bin.000015 serv01.host.com.erribdata1 mysql mysql-bin.000004 mysql-bin.000008 mysql-bin.000012 mysql-bin.000016 serv01.host.com.pid[[email protected] opt]# tar -cvPzf mysql01.tar.gz /usr/local/mysql/data/

第九步,删除数据库文件

[[email protected] ~]# rm -rf /usr/local/mysql/data/*

 
第十步,挂载

[[email protected] ~]# mount /dev/data/mydata /usr/local/mysql/data/[[email protected] ~]# df -hFilesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on/dev/sda2 9.7G 2.4G 6.8G 27% /tmpfs 188M 0 188M 0% /dev/shm/dev/sda1 194M 25M 160M 14% /boot/dev/sda5 4.0G 160M 3.7G 5% /opt/dev/sr0 3.4G 3.4G 0 100% /iso/dev/mapper/data-mydata 2.0G 67M 1.9G 4% /usr/local/mysql/data

 
第十一步,将挂载信息写入配置文件

[[email protected] opt]# echo "/dev/mapper/data-mydata /usr/local/mysql/data ext4 defaults 1 2" >> /etc/fstab [[email protected] opt]# tail -n1 /etc/fstab /dev/mapper/data-mydata /usr/local/mysql/data ext4 defaults 1 2


第十二步,停掉数据库

[[email protected] ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld stop ERROR! MySQL server PID file could not be found![[email protected] ~]# ps -ef | grep mysqldroot 1055 1 0 18:05 ? 00:00:00 /bin/sh /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data --pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/serv01.host.com.pidmysql 1332 1055 0 18:05 ? 00:00:00 /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data --plugin-dir=/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin --user=mysql --log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/serv01.host.com.err --pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/serv01.host.com.pid --socket=/tmp/mysql.sock --port=3306root 1885 1490 0 18:18 pts/0 00:00:00 grep mysqld[[email protected] ~]# pkill -9 mysql[[email protected] ~]# ps -ef | grep mysqldroot 1888 1490 0 18:18 pts/0 00:00:00 grep mysqld[[email protected] ~]# chown mysql.mysql /usr/local/mysql/data/ -R[[email protected] opt]# ll /usr/local/mysql/data/total 0[[email protected] opt]# ll /usr/local/mysql/data/ -ddrwxr-xr-x. 2 mysql mysql 4096 Sep 10 18:17 /usr/local/mysql/data/

第十三步,恢复数据

[[email protected] opt]# tar -xPvf mysql01.tar.gz 

 
第十四步,启动数据库,登录MySQL,然后查看数据是否丢失

[[email protected] opt]# /etc/init.d/mysqld startStarting MySQL SUCCESS! [[email protected] ~]# mysqlWelcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or /g.Your MySQL connection id is 1Server version: 5.5.29-log Source distributionCopyright (c) 2000, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or itsaffiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectiveowners.Type 'help;' or '/h' for help. Type '/c' to clear the current input statement.mysql> use larrydb;Database changedmysql> show tables;+-------------------+| Tables_in_larrydb |+-------------------+| class || stu |+-------------------+2 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> select * from class;+------+--------+| cid | cname |+------+--------+| 1 | linux || 2 | oracle |+------+--------+2 rows in set (0.01 sec)mysql> select * from stu;+------+---------+------+| sid | sname | cid |+------+---------+------+| 1 | larry01 | 1 || 2 | larry02 | 2 |+------+---------+------+2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 
第十五步,使用LVS的快照功能创建快照,快照不需要格式化。

[[email protected] opt]# lvcreate -L 100M -s -n smydata /dev/data/mydata Logical volume "smydata" created

 
第十六步,挂载

[[email protected] opt]# mount /dev/data/smydata /mnt[[email protected] opt]# df -hFilesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on/dev/sda2 9.7G 2.4G 6.8G 27% /tmpfs 188M 0 188M 0% /dev/shm/dev/sda1 194M 25M 160M 14% /boot/dev/sda5 4.0G 161M 3.7G 5% /opt/dev/sr0 3.4G 3.4G 0 100% /iso/dev/mapper/data-mydata 2.0G 98M 1.8G 6% /usr/local/mysql/data/dev/mapper/data-smydata 2.0G 98M 1.8G 6% /mnt

 
第十七步,模拟数据丢失和验证快照的数据不会受本身数据的影响

[[email protected] opt]# cd /mnt[[email protected] mnt]# lscrm ib_logfile1 mysql-bin.000003 mysql-bin.000008 mysql-bin.000013 mysql-bin.indexgame larrydb mysql-bin.000004 mysql-bin.000009 mysql-bin.000014 performance_schemahello mysql mysql-bin.000005 mysql-bin.000010 mysql-bin.000015 serv01.host.com.erribdata1 mysql-bin.000001 mysql-bin.000006 mysql-bin.000011 mysql-bin.000016 serv01.host.com.pidib_logfile0 mysql-bin.000002 mysql-bin.000007 mysql-bin.000012 mysql-bin.000017 test#进入数据目录,创建一个文件[[email protected] ~]# cd /usr/local/mysql/data/[[email protected] data]# touch aa01.txt#进入快照挂载目录,发现没有这个文件[[email protected] mnt]# ls aa01.txtls: cannot access aa01.txt: No such file or directory

 
第十八步,备份数据

[[email protected] mnt]# cd /databackup/[[email protected] databackup]# lltotal 976-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 995761 Sep 10 17:47 mysql01.tar.gz[[email protected] databackup]# /etc/init.d/mysqld status SUCCESS! MySQL running (2198)[[email protected] databackup]# tar -cvzf mysql02.tar.gz /mnt[[email protected] mnt]# rm -rf /usr/local/mysql/data/*[[email protected] mnt]# /etc/init.d/mysqld stop ERROR! MySQL server PID file could not be found![[email protected] mnt]# pkill -9 mysql[[email protected] mnt]# ps -ef | grep mysqld | grep grep -v[[email protected] mnt]# cd /usr/local/mysql/data/[[email protected] data]# lltotal 0 

第十九步,恢复数据,启动数据库,登录MySQL,然后查看数据是否丢失

[[email protected] data]# tar -xvf /databackup/mysql02.tar.gz[[email protected] data]# lsmnt[[email protected] data]# cd mnt/[[email protected] mnt]# mv ./* ../[[email protected] mnt]# cd ..[[email protected] data]# lscrm ib_logfile0 mysql mysql-bin.000004 mysql-bin.000008 mysql-bin.000012 mysql-bin.000016 serv01.host.com.errgame ib_logfile1 mysql-bin.000001 mysql-bin.000005 mysql-bin.000009 mysql-bin.000013 mysql-bin.000017 serv01.host.com.pidhello larrydb mysql-bin.000002 mysql-bin.000006 mysql-bin.000010 mysql-bin.000014 mysql-bin.index testibdata1 mnt mysql-bin.000003 mysql-bin.000007 mysql-bin.000011 mysql-bin.000015 performance_schema[[email protected] data]# /etc/init.d/mysqld startStarting MySQL SUCCESS! [[email protected] data]# mysqlWelcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or /g.Your MySQL connection id is 1Server version: 5.5.29-log Source distributionCopyright (c) 2000, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or itsaffiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectiveowners.Type 'help;' or '/h' for help. Type '/c' to clear the current input statement.mysql> use larrydb;Database changedmysql> select * from class;+------+--------+| cid | cname |+------+--------+| 1 | linux || 2 | oracle |+------+--------+2 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> select * from stu;+------+---------+------+| sid | sname | cid |+------+---------+------+| 1 | larry01 | 1 || 2 | larry02 | 2 |+------+---------+------+2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

本文主要是在真实环境实现冷备份,保证数据的安全性,很有实用价值,有需要的朋友可以收藏起来。



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