MySQL备份与恢复之热备(3)

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       在上两篇文章(MySQL备份与恢复之冷备,MySQL备份与恢复之真实环境使用冷备)中,我们提到了冷备和真实环境中使用冷备。那从这篇文章开始我们看下热备。显然热备和冷备是两个相对的概念,冷备是把数据库服务,比如MySQL,Oracle停下来,然后使用拷贝、打包或者压缩命令对数据目录进行备份;那么我们很容易想到热备就是在MySQL或者其他数据库服务在运行的情况下进行备份。但是,这里存在一个问题,因为生产库在运行的情况下,有对该库的读写,读写频率有可能高,也可能低,不管频率高低,总会就会造成备份出来的数据和生产库中的数据不一致的情况。热备这段时间,其他人不可以操作是不现实的,因为你总不可能终止用户访问Web程序。要解决这个问题,可以采用指定备份策略,比如哪个时间段进行备份,备份哪些数据等等,总之,保证数据的完整性和一致性,切记,备份重于一切!!!
       热备可以对多个库进行备份,可以对单张表或者某几张表进行备份。但是无法同时备份多个库多个表,只有分开备份。下面我们看下热备的示意图,并进行热备模拟。
示意图

 

热备模拟

1、对单个库进行备份
第一步,移除LVM快照。(如果没有创建,忽略此步)

[[email protected] data]# lvremove /dev/data/smydata Do you really want to remove active logical volume smydata? [y/n]: y Logical volume "smydata" successfully removed

第二步,设置MySQL的密码

mysql> set password=password("123456");Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

第三步,查看MySQL是否启动。因为是热备,所以要求MySQL服务启动

[[email protected] data]# /etc/init.d/mysqld status SUCCESS! MySQL running (2664)

第四步,导出单个数据库

[[email protected] data]# cd /databackup/#本质是导出为SQL[[email protected] databackup]# mysqldump -uroot -p123456 --database larrydb-- MySQL dump 10.13 Distrib 5.5.29, for Linux (x86_64)---- Host: localhost Database: larrydb-- -------------------------------------------------------- Server version 5.5.29-log/*!40101 SET @[email protected]@CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT */;/*!40101 SET @[email protected]@CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS */;/*!40101 SET @[email protected]@COLLATION_CONNECTION */;/*!40101 SET NAMES utf8 */;/*!40103 SET @[email protected]@TIME_ZONE */;/*!40103 SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' */;/*!40014 SET @[email protected]@UNIQUE_CHECKS, UNIQUE_CHECKS=0 */;/*!40014 SET @[email protected]@FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS, FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS=0 */;/*!40101 SET @[email protected]@SQL_MODE, SQL_MODE='NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO' */;/*!40111 SET @[email protected]@SQL_NOTES, SQL_NOTES=0 */;---- Current Database: `larrydb`--CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ `larrydb` /*!40100 DEFAULT CHARACTER SET latin1 */;USE `larrydb`;---- Table structure for table `class`--DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `class`;/*!40101 SET @saved_cs_client = @@character_set_client */;/*!40101 SET character_set_client = utf8 */;CREATE TABLE `class` ( `cid` int(11) DEFAULT NULL, `cname` varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;/*!40101 SET character_set_client = @saved_cs_client */;---- Dumping data for table `class`--LOCK TABLES `class` WRITE;/*!40000 ALTER TABLE `class` DISABLE KEYS */;INSERT INTO `class` VALUES (1,'linux'),(2,'oracle');/*!40000 ALTER TABLE `class` ENABLE KEYS */;UNLOCK TABLES;---- Table structure for table `stu`--DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `stu`;/*!40101 SET @saved_cs_client = @@character_set_client */;/*!40101 SET character_set_client = utf8 */;CREATE TABLE `stu` ( `sid` int(11) DEFAULT NULL, `sname` varchar(30) DEFAULT NULL, `cid` int(11) DEFAULT NULL) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;/*!40101 SET character_set_client = @saved_cs_client */;---- Dumping data for table `stu`--LOCK TABLES `stu` WRITE;/*!40000 ALTER TABLE `stu` DISABLE KEYS */;INSERT INTO `stu` VALUES (1,'larry01',1),(2,'larry02',2);/*!40000 ALTER TABLE `stu` ENABLE KEYS */;UNLOCK TABLES;/*!40103 SET [email protected]_TIME_ZONE */;/*!40101 SET [email protected]_SQL_MODE */;/*!40014 SET [email protected]_FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS */;/*!40014 SET [email protected]_UNIQUE_CHECKS */;/*!40101 SET [email protected]_CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT */;/*!40101 SET [email protected]_CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS */;/*!40101 SET [email protected]_COLLATION_CONNECTION */;/*!40111 SET [email protected]_SQL_NOTES */; Dump completed on 2013-09-10 18:56:06#将输出结果保存到文件中[[email protected] databackup]# mysqldump -uroot -p123456 --database larrydb > larrydb.sql

第五步,模拟数据丢失,进入MySQL,删除数据库

[[email protected] data]# mysql -uroot -p123456Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or /g.Your MySQL connection id is 4Server version: 5.5.29-log Source distributionCopyright (c) 2000, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or itsaffiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectiveowners.Type 'help;' or '/h' for help. Type '/c' to clear the current input statement.mysql> show databases;+--------------------+| Database |+--------------------+| information_schema || crm || game || hello || larrydb || mnt || mysql || performance_schema || test |+--------------------+9 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> drop database larrydb;Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.01 sec)mysql> show databases;+--------------------+| Database |+--------------------+| information_schema || crm || game || hello || mnt || mysql || performance_schema || test |+--------------------+8 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> exitBye

第六步,导入数据

[[email protected] databackup]# mysql -uroot -p123456 <larrydb.sql

 
第七步,登录MySQL,查看数据是否正常

[[email protected] data]# mysql -uroot -p123456Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or /g.Your MySQL connection id is 6Server version: 5.5.29-log Source distributionCopyright (c) 2000, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or itsaffiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectiveowners.Type 'help;' or '/h' for help. Type '/c' to clear the current input statement.mysql> show database;ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near 'database' at line 1mysql> show databases;+--------------------+| Database |+--------------------+| information_schema || crm || game || hello || larrydb || mnt || mysql || performance_schema || test |+--------------------+9 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> use larrydb;Database changedmysql> select * from class;+------+--------+| cid | cname |+------+--------+| 1 | linux || 2 | oracle |+------+--------+2 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> select * from stu;+------+---------+------+| sid | sname | cid |+------+---------+------+| 1 | larry01 | 1 || 2 | larry02 | 2 |+------+---------+------+2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

对多个库进行备份
第一步,查看有哪些数据库

mysql> show databases;+--------------------+| Database |+--------------------+| information_schema || crm || game || hello || larrydb || mnt || mysql || performance_schema || test |+--------------------+9 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> use game;Database changedmysql> show tables;+----------------+| Tables_in_game |+----------------+| country || fight || hero |+----------------+3 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> select * from country;+-----+---------+----------+| cno | cname | location |+-----+---------+----------+| 10 | caowei | luoyang || 20 | shuhan | chengdou || 30 | sunwu | nanjing || 40 | houhan | luoyang || 50 | beisong | kaifeng || 60 | 魏国 | 洛阳 |+-----+---------+----------+6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

第二步,备份多个库

[[email protected] databackup]# mysqldump -uroot -p123456 --databases larrydb game > larrydb_game.sql[[email protected] databackup]# ll larrydb_game.sql -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 6159 Sep 10 19:05 larrydb_game.sql

第三步,模拟数据丢失。

mysql> drop database game;Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.01 sec)mysql> drop database larrydb;Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.00 sec)mysql> use crm;Database changedmysql> show tables;+---------------+| Tables_in_crm |+---------------+| test |+---------------+1 row in set (0.00 sec)mysql> select * from test;Empty set (0.00 sec)mysql> drop database crm;Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

第四步,恢复数据

[[email protected] databackup]# mysql -uroot -p123456 < larrydb_game.sql 

 
第五步,查看数据是否正常

[[email protected] data]# mysql -uroot -p123456Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or /g.Your MySQL connection id is 9Server version: 5.5.29-log Source distributionCopyright (c) 2000, 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or itsaffiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respectiveowners.Type 'help;' or '/h' for help. Type '/c' to clear the current input statement.mysql> show databases;+--------------------+| Database |+--------------------+| information_schema || game || hello || larrydb || mnt || mysql || performance_schema || test |+--------------------+8 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> use game;Database changedmysql> select * from country;+-----+---------+----------+| cno | cname | location |+-----+---------+----------+| 10 | caowei | luoyang || 20 | shuhan | chengdou || 30 | sunwu | nanjing || 40 | houhan | luoyang || 50 | beisong | kaifeng || 60 | 魏国 | 洛阳 |+-----+---------+----------+6 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> use larrydb;Database changedmysql> select * from class;+------+--------+| cid | cname |+------+--------+| 1 | linux || 2 | oracle |+------+--------+2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 
备份所有的库

[[email protected] databackup]# mysqldump --help | grep all-databaseOR mysqldump [OPTIONS] --all-databases [OPTIONS] -A, --all-databases Dump all the databases. This will be same as --databases --databases= or --all-databases), the logs will be --all-databases or --databases is given.all-databases FALSE[[email protected] databackup]# mysqldump -uroot -p123456 --all-databases > all_databases.sql[[email protected] databackup]# ll all_databases.sql -h-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 506K Sep 10 19:16 all_databases.sql

备份某张表或者某几张表
第一步,备份某张表和某几张表

[[email protected] databackup]# mysqldump game hero country -uroot -p123456 > game_hero_country.sql[[email protected] databackup]# ll game_hero_country.sql -rw-r--r―. 1 root root 3955 Sep 10 19:11 game_hero_country.sql

第二步,模拟数据丢失

mysql> use game;Database changedmysql> show tables;+----------------+| Tables_in_game |+----------------+| country || fight || hero |+----------------+3 rows in set (0.00 sec)mysql> drop table hero;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)mysql> drop table country;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) 

第三步,查看数据是否正常

[[email protected] databackup]# mysql -uroot -p123456 < game_hero_country.sql ERROR 1046 (3D000) at line 22: No database selected[[email protected] databackup]# mysql -uroot -p123456 --database game < game_hero_country.sql [[email protected] databackup]# mysql -uroot -p123456 -e "select * from game.country"+-----+---------+----------+| cno | cname | location |+-----+---------+----------+| 10 | caowei | luoyang || 20 | shuhan | chengdou || 30 | sunwu | nanjing || 40 | houhan | luoyang || 50 | beisong | kaifeng || 60 | 魏国 | 洛阳 |+-----+---------+----------+

通过这两天关于MySQL热备和冷备的学习,大家是不是对MySQL备份与恢复的了解更加深入了,不管是冷备还是热备其目的都是一致的保证数据的完整性和一致性,切记,备份重于一切!!!

相信今天所学的知识在之后的学习工作中对大家有所帮助。



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