MySQL_第三方数据库引擎_tokudb

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    前阵子迁移zabbix到tokudb,整理部分操作笔记到这篇博文。

 



 

    如果转载,请注明博文来源: www.cnblogs.com/xinysu/   ,版权归 博客园 苏家小萝卜 所有。望各位支持!

 



 1 tokudb引擎介绍

  1. 特性:高压缩,可支持多个聚集索引,支持ACID、MVCC,使用 Fractal Tree 索引
  2. 优点:

    • fractal tree 可以再了解下,对随机IO有非常大的改善作用

      • fractal tree 可以快速插入及删除,在随机IO方面的性能比 B-tree的性能更优

    • 高压缩,官网给出最大25倍

      • 对数据及索引进行压缩,根据数据的可压缩性,官网给出的最大压缩比是 25 倍

    • 在线索引创建,创建期间,insert delete的DML支持,update呢 ?
    • 在线列增加删除重命名,修改期间,insert delete的DML支持,update呢 ?
    • 在线备份
    • 多个聚集索引
    • 无io读复制

      • TokuDB slave可以配置,让来自master修改可以最小化。通过记录fractal tree索引:
      • Insert/update/delete操作可以控制取消read-modify-write的行为,然后注入消息到合适的fractal tree。
      • Update/delete操作可以配置取消需要io的一致性检查。
      • 为了使用使用无io读复制,服务需要配置:
      • 在replication master:
      • 设置为binlog行模式:BINLOG_FORMAT=ROW
      • 在replication slave:
      • Slave必须为只读:read_only=1
      • 取消一致性检查:tokudb_rpl_unique_checks=0
      • 关闭查找(read-modify-write) :tokudb_rpl_lookup_rows=0
      • 可以在一个或者多个slave上配置。只要master使用了基于行的复制,优化在tokudb slave就可用。也就是说如果master使用innodb或者myisam表也是可用的。

    • 无损化,少碎片

      • 4Mb为单位进行存储

    • 快速恢复

      • 恢复时长少于1min

2 Tokudb安装

2.1 percona mysql安装

1 下载最新percona mysql二进制包

2 解压

tar zvxf Percona-Server-5.7.17-13-Linux.x86_64.ssl101.tar.gz

3 软连接

ln -s /opt/percona/Percona-Server-5.7.17-13-Linux.x86_64.ssl101 /usr/local/pmysql

4 建立用户及用户组

groupadd mysql

useradd -g mysql -s /sbin/nologin -d /usr/local/mysql/ -M mysql

5 建立文件夹

mkdir -p /data/mysql/pmysql3330/{data,tmp,logs}

6 数据库配置文件

pmysql3330.cnf

7 授权

[[email protected] percona]# chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/pmysql/

[[email protected] percona]# chown -R mysql:mysql /opt/percona/Percona-Server-5.7.17-13-Linux.x86_64.ssl101

[[email protected] percona]# chown -R mysql:mysql /data/mysql/pmysql3330/

8 看是否需要配置环境变量

vim /etc/profile

PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/pmysql/bin

source profile

9 初始化实例

/usr/local/pmysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/data/mysql/pmysql3330.cnf --initialize

10 检查是否安装有问题

vim /data/mysql/pmysql3330/data/error.log

11 启动数据库实例

/usr/local/pmysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/data/mysql/pmysql3330.cnf &

12 修改密码

cat /data/mysql/pmysql3330/data/error.log | grep password

/usr/local/pmysql/bin/mysql --socket=/tmp/pmysql3330.sock -uroot -p

alter user [email protected] idnetified by '******';

flush privileges;

2.2 安装 jemalloc,管理内存

https://github.com/jemalloc/jemalloc/releases 找个最新版本安装就可以了

 

wget https://github.com/jemalloc/jemalloc/releases/download/5.0.0/jemalloc-5.0.0.tar.bz2

tar xjf jemalloc-4.2.1.tar.bz2

cd jemalloc-4.2.1

./configure

make && make install

echo '/usr/local/lib' > /etc/ld.so.conf.d/local.conf

 

解压过程中如果报错如下,请安装 bzip2 包 :yum install -y bzip2

 

[[email protected] percona]# tar -xjf jemalloc-4.2.1.tar.bz2

tar (child): bzip2: Cannot exec: No such file or directory

tar (child): Error is not recoverable: exiting now

tar: Child returned status 2

tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now

 

 

安装成功后,在数据库配置文件中的mysqld_safe模块,添加引用libjemalloc.so,记得需要先找下这个文件的实际位置,然后cp或者ls一份到/usr/lib64目录下。

在数据库配置文件中添加引用

 

[mysqld_safe]

malloc-lib=/usr/lib64/libjemalloc.so.1

 

 

注意,数据库关闭后,需要用mysqld_safe启动服务,使用 jemalloc 管理内存。

 

[[email protected] jemalloc-5.0.0]# /usr/local/pmysql/bin/mysqladmin --socket=/tmp/pmysql3330.sock -uroot -p shutdown

Enter password:

[[email protected] jemalloc-5.0.0]# ps axu | grep pmysql

root     12418  0.0  0.0 112648   964 pts/1    S+   10:29   0:00 grep --color=auto pmysql

[[email protected] jemalloc-5.0.0]# cd /usr/local/pmysql/

[[email protected] pmysql]# ./bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data/mysql/pmysql3330.cnf &

[1] 13745

[[email protected] pmysql]#  mysqld_safe Adding '/usr/lib/libjemalloc.so.1' to LD_PRELOAD for mysqld

2017-06-24T02:31:06.679622Z mysqld_safe Logging to '/data/mysql/pmysql3330/data/error.log'.

2017-06-24T02:31:06.685066Z mysqld_safe Logging to '/data/mysql/pmysql3330/data/error.log'.

2017-06-24T02:31:06.788240Z mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /data/mysql/pmysql3330/data

 

2.3 修改transparent_hugepage

tokudb引擎需要启动透明大页,更好的提供内存管理。

[[email protected] percona5718]# cat /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled

[always] madvise never

 

需要修改为never,如果不修改,使用tokudb引擎的时候,会在error.log中报错

 

Transparent huge pages are enabled, according to /sys/kernel/mm/redhat_transparent_hugepage/enabled

Transparent huge pages are enabled, according to /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled

 

配置如下:

echo never > /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/enabled

echo never > /sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/defrag

 

2.4 安装tokudb引擎跟percona client 

官网下载后安装。

rpm -ivhPercona-Server-shared-57-5.7.17-13.1.el6.x86_64.rpm

rpm -ivhPercona-Server-client-57-5.7.17-13.1.el7.x86_64.rpm

rpm -ivhPercona-Server-server-57-5.7.17-13.1.el6.x86_64.rpm

rpm -ivh --force --nodeps Percona-Server-tokudb-57-5.7.17-13.1.el7.x86_64.rpm

2.5 启用tokudb存储引擎

安装tokudb引擎后,会提示启动指令语法如下:

 

* This release of Percona Server is distributed with TokuDB storage engine.

  * Run the following script to enable the TokuDB storage engine in Percona Server:

    ps_tokudb_admin --enable -u <mysql_admin_user> -p[mysql_admin_pass] [-S <socket>] [-h <host> -P <port>]

  * See http://www.percona.com/doc/percona-server/5.7/tokudb/tokudb_installation.html for more installation details

  * See http://www.percona.com/doc/percona-server/5.7/tokudb/tokudb_intro.html for an introduction to TokuDB

 

使用 ps_tokudb_admin指令 :

ps_tokudb_admin --enable -uroot -p  --sock=/tmp/pmysql.sock --defaults-file=/data/mysql/mysql3306.cnf

 

如果正常,则是以下显示,不正常的话,看下前面的安装步骤是不是少了

 

Checking if Percona server is running with jemalloc enabled...

>> Percona server is running with jemalloc enabled.

Checking transparent huge pages status on the system...

>> Transparent huge pages are currently disabled on the system.

Checking if thp-setting=never option is already set in config file...

>> Option thp-setting=never is not set in the config file.

>> (needed only if THP is not disabled permanently on the system)

Checking TokuDB plugin status...

>> TokuDB plugin is not installed.

Adding thp-setting=never option into /etc/mysql/my.cnf

>> Successfuly added thp-setting=never option into /etc/mysql/my.cnf

Installing TokuDB engine...

>> Successfuly installed TokuDB plugin.

 

安装生产后,可以在

 

SHOW PLUGINS;

SHOW ENGINES;

 

TokuDB Version

[email protected]:pmysql3330.sock  10:42:50 [(none)]>SELECT @@tokudb_version;

+------------------+

| @@tokudb_version |

+------------------+

| 5.7.17-13        |

+------------------+

1 row in set (0.00 sec)

 

3 文件管理及分析

3.1 安装tokudb引擎后的新增文件

在数据目录中,新增了8个文件

[[email protected] data]# pwd

/data/mysql/pmysql3330/data

[[email protected] data]# ls -lh | grep tokudb

-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql  16K Jun 24 10:42 tokudb.directory

-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql  16K Jun 24 10:42 tokudb.environment

-rw-------. 1 mysql mysql    0 Jun 24 10:42 __tokudb_lock_dont_delete_me_data

-rw-------. 1 mysql mysql    0 Jun 24 10:42 __tokudb_lock_dont_delete_me_environment

-rw-------. 1 mysql mysql    0 Jun 24 10:42 __tokudb_lock_dont_delete_me_logs

-rw-------. 1 mysql mysql    0 Jun 24 10:42 __tokudb_lock_dont_delete_me_recovery

-rw-------. 1 mysql mysql    0 Jun 24 10:42 __tokudb_lock_dont_delete_me_temp

-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql  16K Jun 24 10:42 tokudb.rollback

 

  1. tokudb.environment:tokudb赢取的环境变量存储文件,像创建时间、当前版本号
  2. tokudb.rollback:每一个tokudb的事务,都有自己的回滚日志,具体回滚日志分配相关信息记录在这里
  3. tokudb.directory:映射文件夹的名字

3.2 tokudb文件管理

可以统一把tokudb的数据文件存储在某个文件夹下,参数是 tokudb_data_dir

可以统一把tokudb的临时文件存储在某个文件夹下,参数是 tokudb_tmp_dir

可以统一把tokudb的日志文件存储在某个文件夹下,参数是 tokudb_log_dir

  • 如何迁移:

    1. 关闭数据库服务
    2. 配置文件中添加或者修改 tokudb_data_dir、tokudb_tmp_dir、、、
    3. 创建 tokudb 文件的存储目录
    4. 移动文件

      1. 移动 *.tokudb 文件 跟 __tokudb_lock_dont_delete_me_data 到新的存储目录
      2. 移动 __tokudb_lock_dont_delete_me_temp 到新的 存储目录
      3. 移动 到新的 log*.tokulog* files and your __tokudb_lock_dont_delete_me_logs file 存储目录
    5. 启动数据库服务器
    6. 查看文件的存放位置

      1. SELECT dictionary_name, internal_file_name FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TokuDB_file_map;

3.3 问题分析

https://www.percona.com/doc/percona-server/5.7/tokudb/tokudb_troubleshooting.html

information_schema库里边的相应系统视图分析

 

[email protected]:pmysql3330.sock  17:15:33 [information_schema]>show tables like '%tokudb%';

+-----------------------------------------+

| Tables_in_information_schema (%tokudb%) |

+-----------------------------------------+

| TokuDB_fractal_tree_block_map           |

| TokuDB_lock_waits                       |

| TokuDB_trx                              |

| TokuDB_file_map                         |

| TokuDB_locks                            |

| TokuDB_fractal_tree_info                |

| TokuDB_background_job_status            |

+-----------------------------------------+

7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 

 

4 备份

    tokudb如何备份呢?

   单表也可以使用mysqldump。全库呢? tokudb引擎全库备份,官方版本是使用 tokudb_backup 引擎来进行,支持在线热备。也就是,需要另外安装这个引擎,安装相对简单,使用 ps_tokudb_admin + 重启数据库服务预加载引擎 + ps_tokudb_admin。

4.1 安装备份引擎

   首先,确保数据库是启动正常状态,执行ps_tokudb_admin,如果 数据库配置文件 cnf不是在 /etc/my.cnf,需要手动指定 --defaults-file,避免无法找到配置文件写入 preload-hotbackup。

 

[[email protected] pmysql]# ps_tokudb_admin --enable-backup --socket=/tmp/pmysql3330.sock -uroot -p*** --defaults-file=/data/mysql/pmysql3330.cnf

Checking SELinux status...

INFO: SELinux is in permissive mode.

 

Checking if Percona Server is running with jemalloc enabled...

INFO: Percona Server is running with jemalloc enabled.

 

Checking transparent huge pages status on the system...

INFO: Transparent huge pages are currently disabled on the system.

 

Checking if thp-setting=never option is already set in config file...

INFO: Option thp-setting=never is not set in the config file.

      (needed only if THP is not disabled permanently on the system)

 

Checking if preload-hotbackup option is already set in config file...

INFO: Option preload-hotbackup is not set in the config file.

 

Checking TokuDB engine plugin status...

INFO: TokuDB engine plugin is installed.

 

Checking TokuBackup plugin status...

INFO: TokuBackup plugin is not installed.

 

Adding preload-hotbackup option into /data/mysql/pmysql3330.cnf

INFO: Successfully added preload-hotbackup option into /data/mysql/pmysql3330.cnf

PLEASE RESTART MYSQL SERVICE AND RUN THIS SCRIPT AGAIN TO FINISH INSTALLATION!

 

 

    这个时候,可以看到提示:Successfully added preload-hotbackup option into /data/mysql/pmysql3330.cnf,查看配置文件,在 mysqld_safe 配置中,添加多了一行 配置 :preload-hotbackup。

 

[mysqld_safe]

preload-hotbackup

malloc-lib=/usr/lib/libjemalloc.so.1

 

 

    重启数据库服务,使用 mysqladmin关闭,mysqld_safe 启动

 

 

[[email protected] pmysql]# /usr/local/pmysql/bin/mysqladmin --socket=/tmp/pmysql3330.sock -uroot -p shutdown

Enter password:

2017-06-26T03:48:20.192200Z mysqld_safe mysqld from pid file /data/mysql/pmysql3330/data/mysql.pid ended

[1]+  Done                    ./bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data/mysql/pmysql3330.cnf

 

[[email protected] pmysql]# ./bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data/mysql/pmysql3330.cnf &

[1] 10069

[[email protected] pmysql]#  mysqld_safe Adding '/usr/lib/libjemalloc.so.1' to LD_PRELOAD for mysqld

 mysqld_safe Adding '/usr/lib64/libHotBackup.so' to LD_PRELOAD for mysqld

2017-06-26T03:50:32.005677Z mysqld_safe Logging to '/data/mysql/pmysql3330/data/error.log'.

2017-06-26T03:50:32.013350Z mysqld_safe Logging to '/data/mysql/pmysql3330/data/error.log'.

2017-06-26T03:50:32.099577Z mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /data/mysql/pmysql3330/data

 

   这里有个地方注意下, libHotBackup.so 记得要cp到 /usr/lib 或者 /usr/lib64的目录下,不然mysqld_safe启动数据库的时候,会报错如下:

 

mysqld_safe Adding '/usr/lib/libjemalloc.so.1' to LD_PRELOAD for mysqld

mysqld_safe Adding '/opt/percona/Percona-Server-5.7.17-13-Linux.x86_64.ssl101/lib/libHotBackup.so' to LD_PRELOAD for mysqld

mysqld_safe ld_preload libraries can only be loaded from system directories (/usr/lib64, /usr/lib, /usr/local/pmysql/lib)

 

    这种情况下,它检查到 安装目录下有 libHotBackup.so 引擎文件,会使用这个加载,需要 把这个文件拷贝到 /usr/lib64 或者 /usr/lib,再重新加载这个文件,然后再次执行 mysqld_saft启动服务。

 

cp /opt/percona/Percona-Server-5.7.17-13-Linux.x86_64.ssl101/lib/libHotBackup.so /usr/lib/libHotBackup.so

mv /opt/percona/Percona-Server-5.7.17-13-Linux.x86_64.ssl101/lib/libHotBackup.so /opt/percona/Percona-Server-5.7.17-13-Linux.x86_64.ssl101/lib/libHotBackup.so.bak

 

    数据库启动后,安装备份引擎

 

[[email protected] pmysql]# ps_tokudb_admin --enable-backup --socket=/tmp/pmysql3330.sock -uroot -p

Enter password:

 

Checking SELinux status...

INFO: SELinux is in permissive mode.

 

Checking if Percona Server is running with jemalloc enabled...

INFO: Percona Server is running with jemalloc enabled.

 

Checking transparent huge pages status on the system...

INFO: Transparent huge pages are currently disabled on the system.

 

Checking if thp-setting=never option is already set in config file...

INFO: Option thp-setting=never is not set in the config file.

      (needed only if THP is not disabled permanently on the system)

 

Checking if preload-hotbackup option is already set in config file...

INFO: Option preload-hotbackup is set in the config file.

 

Checking TokuDB engine plugin status...

INFO: TokuDB engine plugin is installed.

 

Checking TokuBackup plugin status...

INFO: TokuBackup plugin is not installed.

 

Checking if Percona Server is running with libHotBackup.so preloaded...

INFO: Percona Server is running with libHotBackup.so preloaded.

 

Adding thp-setting=never option into /etc/my.cnf

INFO: Successfully added thp-setting=never option into /etc/my.cnf

 

Installing TokuBackup plugin...

INFO: Successfully installed TokuBackup plugin.

 

 

    检查

 

[email protected]:pmysql3330.sock  14:34:21 [(none)]>show plugins;

......

| TokuDB                        | ACTIVE   | STORAGE ENGINE     | ha_tokudb.so     | GPL     |

| TokuDB_background_job_status  | ACTIVE   | INFORMATION SCHEMA | ha_tokudb.so     | GPL     |

| TokuDB_file_map               | ACTIVE   | INFORMATION SCHEMA | ha_tokudb.so     | GPL     |

| TokuDB_fractal_tree_block_map | ACTIVE   | INFORMATION SCHEMA | ha_tokudb.so     | GPL     |

| TokuDB_fractal_tree_info      | ACTIVE   | INFORMATION SCHEMA | ha_tokudb.so     | GPL     |

| TokuDB_locks                  | ACTIVE   | INFORMATION SCHEMA | ha_tokudb.so     | GPL     |

| TokuDB_lock_waits             | ACTIVE   | INFORMATION SCHEMA | ha_tokudb.so     | GPL     |

| TokuDB_trx                    | ACTIVE   | INFORMATION SCHEMA | ha_tokudb.so     | GPL     |

| tokudb_backup                 | ACTIVE   | DAEMON             | tokudb_backup.so | GPL     |

+-------------------------------+----------+--------------------+------------------+---------+

59 rows in set (0.00 sec)

 

4.2 备份tokudb

实例备份

  • 配置前提
    • 如果实例含有innodb引擎的表格,需要关闭 innodb异步io的变量 innodb_use_native_aio,避免出现数据不一致,无法恢复的备份。这个变量只能在配置文件中添加,属于readonly变量
    • 建立备份文件夹,这个文件夹必须是为空、授权备份文件夹可写,因为备份的时候,需要写入及创建文件夹,所以对其所在的文件夹需要有权限
    • 注意,tokudb_back对本身引擎的表格,支持对单独存储的 tokudb_data_dir\ tokudb_log_dir \binary log备份,但是,不支持不支持不支持 innodb或者myisam引擎的表格另外存储,也就是 所有的InnoDB存储引擎,MyISAM,及其他文件必须在MySQL datadir
    • tokubackup不备份MySQL的配置文件(S)
    • tokubackup不支持增量备份

  • 配置
    • 在配置文件中设置 innodb_use_native_aio = OFF,重启数据库实例,这里注意,启动数据库需要到 /usr/local/pmysql 目录下,执行 ./bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data/mysql/pmysql3330.cnf
    • 建立文件夹 /data/backup/pmysql3330 ,并授权
      • chown -R mysql:mysql /data/backup

      备份分为2中,一种是实例备份,一种是指定备份,目前tokudb_backup仅支持整个实例备份,支持混合引擎,指定备份,目前采用mysqldump方法。

  • 实例备份
    • set tokudb_backup_dir='/data/backup/pmysql3330';
    • 执行这个指令则开始备份,备份过程中,支持读写,

  • 备份出错验证

[email protected]:pmysql3330.sock  10:57:13 [(none)]>select @@tokudb_backup_last_error;

+----------------------------+

| @@tokudb_backup_last_error |

+----------------------------+

|                         13 |

+----------------------------+

1 row in set (0.00 sec)

 

[email protected]:pmysql3330.sock  10:57:30 [(none)]>select @@tokudb_backup_last_error_string;

+---------------------------------------------------+

| @@tokudb_backup_last_error_string                 |

+---------------------------------------------------+

| tokudb backup couldn't create needed directories. |

+---------------------------------------------------+

1 row in set (0.00 sec)

  • 表格备份

[[email protected] local]# /usr/local/pmysql/bin/mysqldump --socket=/tmp/pmysql3330.sock -uroot -p --set-gtid-purged=OFF --databases toku --tables tbback_toku > /tmp/tbback_toku.sql

Enter password:

  • 实例备份后还原
    • tokudbback没有特定的函数进行数据恢复,可以使用cp或者sync到 数据目录,或者直接使用备份目录
    • 注意权限修改

rsync -avrP /data/backup/ /var/lib/mysql/

chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql

 

 

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