MySQL如何修改账号的IP限制条件详解

来源:转载

前言

最近在工作中遇到一个需求:修改MySQL用户的权限,需要限制特定IP地址才能访问,第一次遇到这类需求,结果在测试过程,使用更新系统权限报发现出现了一些问题, 具体演示如下.

注意:下面测试环境为MySQL 5.6.20. 如有其它版本与下面测试结果有出入,请以实际环境为准。

我们先创建一个测试用户LimitIP,只允许192.168段的IP地址访问,具体权限如下所示:

mysql> GRANT SELECT ON MyDB.* TO [email protected]'192.168.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'LimitIP';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec) mysql> GRANT INSERT ,UPDATE,DELETE ON MyDB.kkk TO [email protected]'192.168.%';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql> mysql> flush privileges;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql> mysql> show grants for [email protected]'192.168.%';+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+| Grants for [email protected]% |+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.%' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*72DDE03E02CC55A9478A82F3F4EBE7F639249DEC' || GRANT SELECT ON `MyDB`.* TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.%' || GRANT INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON `MyDB`.`kkk` TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.%' |+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+3 rows in set (0.00 sec) mysql>

假设现在收到需求:这个用户只允许这个IP地址192.168.103.17访问,于是我打算更新mysql.user表,如下所示:

mysql> select user, host from mysql.user where user='LimitIP';+---------+-----------+| user | host |+---------+-----------+| LimitIP | 192.168.% |+---------+-----------+1 row in set (0.00 sec) mysql> update mysql.user set host='192.168.103.17' where user='LimitIP';Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)Rows matched: 1 Changed: 1 Warnings: 0 mysql> flush privileges;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec) mysql> select user, host from user where user='LimitIP';ERROR 1046 (3D000): No database selectedmysql> use mysql;Reading table information for completion of table and column namesYou can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A Database changedmysql> select user, host from user where user='LimitIP';+---------+----------------+| user | host |+---------+----------------+| LimitIP | 192.168.103.17 |+---------+----------------+1 row in set (0.00 sec) mysql> show grants for [email protected]'192.168.103.17';+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+| Grants for [email protected] |+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.103.17' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*72DDE03E02CC55A9478A82F3F4EBE7F639249DEC' |+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+1 row in set (0.00 sec) mysql> 

上面测试发现,如果这样只修改mysql.user表, 那么之前的权限没有了,如下所示,如果你查询mysql.db、 mysql.tables_priv 发现Host的字段值依然为192.168.%

mysql> select * from mysql.db where user='LimitIP'/G;*************************** 1. row *************************** Host: 192.168.% Db: MyDB User: LimitIP Select_priv: Y Insert_priv: N Update_priv: N Delete_priv: N Create_priv: N Drop_priv: N Grant_priv: N References_priv: N Index_priv: N Alter_priv: NCreate_tmp_table_priv: N Lock_tables_priv: N Create_view_priv: N Show_view_priv: N Create_routine_priv: N Alter_routine_priv: N Execute_priv: N Event_priv: N Trigger_priv: N1 row in set (0.00 sec) ERROR: No query specified mysql> select * from mysql.tables_priv where user='LimitIP'/G;*************************** 1. row *************************** Host: 192.168.% Db: MyDB User: LimitIP Table_name: kkk Grantor: [email protected] Timestamp: 0000-00-00 00:00:00 Table_priv: Insert,Update,DeleteColumn_priv: 1 row in set (0.00 sec) ERROR: No query specified

所以我继续修改 mysql.db、 mysql.tables_priv 表,然后测试验证终于OK了(请见下面测试步骤),当然如果账户的权限不止这几个层面,你可能还必须修改例如mysql.columns_priv、mysql.procs_priv等表

mysql> show grants for [email protected]'192.168.%';ERROR 1141 (42000): There is no such grant defined for user 'LimitIP' on host '192.168.%'mysql> mysql> mysql> update mysql.db set host='192.168.103.17' where user='LimitIP';Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)Rows matched: 1 Changed: 1 Warnings: 0 mysql> update mysql.tables_priv set host='192.168.103.17' where user='LimitIP';Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)Rows matched: 1 Changed: 1 Warnings: 0 mysql> flush privileges;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql> show grants for [email protected]'192.168.103.17';+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+| Grants for [email protected] |+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.103.17' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*72DDE03E02CC55A9478A82F3F4EBE7F639249DEC' || GRANT SELECT ON `MyDB`.* TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.103.17' || GRANT INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON `MyDB`.`kkk` TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.103.17' |+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+3 rows in set (0.00 sec) mysql> 

如果需要修改用户的IP限制,其实更新mysql相关权限表不是上上策,其实有更好的方法,那就是RENAME USER Syntax

mysql> RENAME USER 'LimitIP'@'192.168.103.17' TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.103.18';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql> show grants for 'LimitIP'@'192.168.103.18';+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+| Grants for [email protected] |+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.103.18' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*72DDE03E02CC55A9478A82F3F4EBE7F639249DEC' || GRANT SELECT ON `MyDB`.* TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.103.18' || GRANT INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON `MyDB`.`kkk` TO 'LimitIP'@'192.168.103.18' |+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+3 rows in set (0.00 sec) mysql> 

总结

以上就是这篇文章的全部内容了,希望本文的内容对大家的学习或者工作能带来一定的帮助,如果有疑问大家可以留言交流,谢谢大家对第七城市的支持。

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